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Parenting Styles Free essay! Download now

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Parenting Styles

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Downloads to date: N/A | Words: 2428 | Submitted: 16-Jan-2012
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The essay is about different types of parenting style



The question of how parenting features affect children’s educational outcomes has captivated educational researchers for several decades. Scholars have typically conceptualized parenting features as parental involvement and parenting style. Parental involvement refers to the amount of participation parents have when it comes to their children’s education and life (Paik, 2004). Parenting style defines as a “psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in child rearing” (Wikipedia, 2011). The two constructs maybe different but it has been reported that the level of parental involvement and the degree to which parents practices a certain parenting style are highly correlated (Paik, 2004). Characteristics of each parenting style are affected by both the parents’ and children’s temperaments and are largely based on the influence of “class, culture and historical contexts” (Bornstein and Zlotnik 2009, p281). Parenting style is usually influenced by family dynamics, parents’ socio economic status, parental education and their own social and emotional status.

Studies by Diana Baumrind and National Educational Longitudinal Study have shown that types of parenting styles and parental involvement have an effect on children’s social and intellectual competencies, which leads to the kind of adults they become. One of the best known theories of parenting style was developed by Diana Baumrind (1978). She identified three main parenting styles. They were the authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting and permissive parenting. Later the theory included a fourth parenting style called neglectful by Maccoby and Martin (1983). Demo and Cox (2000) as cited by Tiller (n.d.) stated that there were great deal of studies before 1900s examined the effects of parenting styles on children’s outcomes, particularly identifying the benefits to children of authoritative parenting as opposed to negative outcomes produced by authoritarian and permissive parenting (Tiller et al. n.d.). We will briefly discuss the four parenting style.

Parenting Styles

An authoritarian parent use punitive, absolute and forceful disciplinary actions and places a high level of importance on obedience and conformity. They discourage the child’s autonomy and mould the child to exhibit behaviors and attitudes they desire. They do not allow the child to over write their decisions and their words are considered final. This style of parenting is common in Asian families. For example, Asian parent do not allow the child to leave home till they are married unlike Westerners who encourage child to be independent once they are eighteen. Children from such families are immature, inadequate in making their own decisions and taking responsibility for their own actions (Berk, 2005).

An authoritative parent expects their child to comply with a reasonable set of rules and is responsive to the child’s needs and is respectful and supportive to the child’s autonomy and individuality. Another important characteristic of authoritative parenting is the two-way communication ...

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