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psychological approach

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Downloads to date: N/A | Words: 700 | Submitted: 26-Oct-2011
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cognitive behavior


Many different models are used to explain and treat abnormal behaviour. Each is based on different assumptions about the nature of human behaviour, and therefore has different views on abnormal functioning.

In this assignment, I will be explaining on three approaches within psychology which will be biological, behavioural and cognitive.

Psychologists from the biological approach assume that behaviour and experiences are caused by activity in the nervous system of the body. The things that people think and feel, say and do are caused, one way or another, by electrochemical events occurring within and between the neurones that make up nervous system. (Goldstein E.B., 2003) According to Gerard, he suggests that “the development of the brain is determined by the genes a person inherits and that behaviour may be influenced by genetic factors”.(Gerard K., 2010) Biological approach could be tend to focus on genetic and biological influences on behaviour to the exclusion of social and cultural influences. If we knew the psychological basis of some aspects of behaviour, then we could treat the problem using drugs, which could solve the problem entirely if it’s simply a straight forward chemical imbalance.

Behaviourist regards all behaviour as a response to a stimulus. They assume that what we do is determined by the environment we are in, which provides stimuli to which we respond, and the environments we have been in the past, which caused us to learn to respond to stimuli in particular ways. (Coon D., 1980) Behaviourists explain behaviour in terms of the stimuli that elicit it and the events that caused the person to learn and respond to the stimulus that way. (William E.G.) Two processes are used to explain how people learn: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In behavioural theory, people can learn as a result of their own experiences. According to skinner’s he claim that “human behaviour can be predicted and controlled in the same way as behaviour of non-humans is usually accepted only by other behaviour analysts”. (Skinner B.F., 1990) However, with experience and many studies, I think that people are quite capable of observing and learning from the behaviour and experiences of others.

Cognitive psychology studies our mental processes or cognitions. These mental processes that cognitive psychologists focus on include memory, perception, thinking and language. The main assumption of the cognitive approach is that information received from our senses is processed by the brain and that this processing directs how we behave or at least justifies how we behave the way that we do. (Wood B., 2001) According to Malim (2005) he mentions that “Cognitive processes are examples of hypothetical constructs. That is, he ...

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