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MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATION
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DescriptionBasic Understanding of Management
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATION
In the book of “The human side of enterprise” (1987), Douglas McGregor said “Every managerial act rests on assumptions, generalizations, and hypotheses – that is to say, on theory. Our assumptions are frequently implicit, sometimes quite unconscious, often conflicting; nevertheless, they determine our predictions that if we do a, b will occur. They and practice are inseparable.” This is the essence of management theory. Management theories guide the management behaviour, lead management actions to a scientific way, to make the work more efficient. This essay will focus on the classical management theories and human relation management theories, give the explanation to each theory. Furthermore, it will compare and contrast these two important approaches theories.
The classical management theories include scientific management, administrative theory and bureaucracy. Classical management theories are the basics of management theories, especially the scientific management theory which founded by F.W. Taylor.
The scientific management was born at the early twentieth-century. It is F.W. Taylor who brought up the concept of management in a scientific way. In Taylor’s book “The principles of scientific management” which published in 1911, Taylor specified that “workers should be paid in accordance with the mental and physical difficulty of the task. Each individual was to be paid according to his or her own output.” In addition, Taylor and his proponents considered that the workers should be paid according to both the output and the difficulty of their work. That means the workers who more hard-working will get more paid, it is justice to every operative. It is also a positive way to encourage the workers and efficient way to increase the products. However, the scientific management theory was a big achievement, it still has some shortages. The scientific management theory only focuses on the high output, ignored the human factors, so the final result will be limited.
So, Henri Fayol developed it and came up with a new idea of management which named Administrative management theory. In this theory, Fayol listed 14 principles and create POCCC model (planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating, controlling). This theory was much more focus on the whole process of management, which means not emphasise the output but how could the managers do their job well. This is more reasonable and human than scientific management theory, but, there is still some weakness existed. It is overemphasise the groups, so it will lack of flexibility. For example, the organisation’s goals are much important than the individual’s interests. Or they have to listen to only one command, so the ...
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