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My carbon footprint of international travelling between Xiamen and Cardiff Free essay! Download now

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My carbon footprint of international travelling between Xiamen and Cardiff

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Downloads to date: N/A | Words: 2436 | Submitted: 08-Mar-2012
Spelling accuracy: 95.4% | Number of pages: 11 | Filetype: Word .doc


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My carbon footprint of international travelling between Xiamen and Cardiff

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Introduction
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its fourth assessment report. They found that there is broad agreement that the climate is warming and the warming of the climate was very likely due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions from humans have increased by 70% between 1970 and 2004. While there are a variety of GHG that impact climate change, CO2 is the most important of the human-caused GHGs.

Although climate change is one of the most serious issues confronting humankind, we have so far achieved only very limited reductions in emissions. While government and companies have not much choice to reduce the Carbon emissions, the individual cannot shift the responsibility for dealing with climate change onto others. The responsibility belongs to individual citizens of the world.

As an international student from China, international travel is inevitable. In particular, international air travel is the first choice for us. This article illustrates different routes between Xiamen (China) and Cardiff (UK) at first, and then to provide the comparison between three different flight routes in terms of the travel CO2 emissions. Furthermore, I will try to give an alternative option, the international railway through the land-bridge, to reduce the impact of travel on the environment.

Literature review
-Carbon footprint
Carbon footprint is a new buzzword that has gained tremendous popularity over the last few years in response to the increasing public awareness of environmental issues and climate change. Wiedmann and Minx (2007) propose the following definition:

“The carbon footprint is a measure of the exclusive total amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product.”
Another definition described by UK Carbon Trust (2008) is “the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product”.

-Calculating Carbon Footprints
One way to increase the knowledge about the expected carbon dioxide emissions per capita are the so called carbon calculators on the internet offered by a number of stakeholders, from environmental organizations, transport companies, energy industry and newspapers (Gunnarsson et. al., 2009). There are now many websites that offer to estimate a user’s carbon footprint based on questionnaire data solicited from the user, such as the type of home, number of miles driven per year, and number of miles flown per year.

Murray and Dey (2007) survey eleven such websites, finding a variety of differences and deficiencies. Most of the calculators have different inputs, so they are not directly comparable, which leads to confusing results.

Calculators
Websites
Transport modes
Methodologies
Travelfootprint
http://www.travelfootprint.org
Car/Taxi/Tube/Bus /Coach/Train
Based on LCA Report, compared DEFRA's guidelines for GHG emissions
Carbonfootprint
http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx
Car/Taxi/Tube/Bus /Coach/Train
Based on DEFRA's guidelines for GHG emissions;
ICAO
http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx
Flight
Based ...

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