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| Words: 4630 | Submitted: 03-Jan-2012
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DescriptionMy essay is about change Management and it's effects
LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT
History Of Leadership:
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. History's greatest philosophical writings from Plato's Republic to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the "trait theory of leadership".
The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. In Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869), he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader.
For decades, this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership. Using early research techniques, researchers conducted over a hundred studies proposing a number of characteristics that distinguished leaders from nonleaders: intelligence, dominance, adaptability, persistence, integrity, socioeconomic status, and self-confidence, for example.
Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task" Other in-depth definitions of leadership have also emerged.
Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others.
Hunt demonstrates that leadership is immersed in a complex, dynamic, and interactive web, which he refers to as a "historical-contextual superstructure." He asserts that conceptions of leadership are integrally linked to various factors, including among others the nature of reality and ontological issues, stakeholder perspectives, and levels-of-analysis issues. Thus, how leadership is defined and studied will depend on one's conception of leadership. Hunt provides various examples of conceptions of leadership (e.g., leadership as cognition, leadership and culture, leadership development), which provide an organizational framework to be related to the other chapters of this book.
Hunt, James G. (Jerry)
The nature of leadership.(pp. 19-47)Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, IncAntonakis, John (Ed); Cianciolo, Anna T. (Ed); Sternberg, Robert J. ...
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