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Guinea fowls

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Guinea fowls - PhD thesis

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Singh (1988) reported that the dressed carcass weight of indigenous guinea fowl at 12 weeks of age was 75.20±10.03, at 14 weeks: 76.00±10.03 and at 16 weeks: 77.50± 10.50 per cent of the live weight, respectively.
Mandal et al. (1999) reported that at the slaughterable age of 12 weeks the dressed weight percentage in hot and humid climate was 74.22 per cent and in cold climate it was 73.79 per cent of the live weight, respectively.
Mandal (loc cit.) opined that the dressed carcass yield in guinea fowls at 12 weeks of age was significantly high (P<0.05) for birds reared in battery (74.34±10.35%) compared to the guinea fowls reared in deep litter (70.61±10.62 %)
Singh et al. (1999) reported that at 16 weeks of age the dressed weight percentage of Pearl male guinea fowl was 76.06±12.63; female: 73.43±14.85% and that of Lavender male was 78.32±12.66% and female: 76.88±14.65 % of live weight. They concluded that the Lavender male had the highest dressing percentage.
Sharma et al. (2000 ) recorded the carcass characteristics of 62 numbers of guinea fowl and reported that the dressed weight at 12, 16, and 56 weeks of age were 77.85±1.96, 76.46±10.42 and 74.16±10.71 per cent of the live weight .
Giblets
Mohapatra et al. (1985) noticed a significant effect of sex on giblet weight of guinea fowl.
Singh (1988) reported that the giblet weight per cent to that of eviscerated weight at 12 weeks of age was 5.00±0.12, at 14 weeks of age: 4.10±0.12 and at 16 weeks of age: 3.60± 0.11.
Singh et al. (1999) reported that the giblet weight per cent to that of the live weight at 16 weeks of age was 6.09±0.66 for male, 5.54±0.78 for female Pearl guinea fowl and 5.55±0.21 for male and 5.58±0.42 for female Lavender guinea fowl. The giblet weight in Pearl guinea fowl male was significantly higher (P&#8804;0.05) than female, however, the difference due to strain was not significant.
Mandal et al. (1999) reported that the giblets weight per cent to that of live weight at 12 weeks of age in guinea fowls reared in battery was 4.56±0.09 and in deep litter: 4.43 ±0.01, and concluded that the giblet weight percent was similar in birds reared in cages with that on deep litter.
Mandal (loc cit) reported that the giblet percentage of guinea fowl raised up to 12 weeks in hot and humid climate was 3.87±0.66 and in cool climate: 4.66±0.62 without any significant difference.
Sharma et al. (2000) reported that the giblets weight to that of eviscerated weight of Pearl strain of guinea fowl at 12, 16 and 56 weeks was 6.25±1.43, 6.7± 0.77 and 4.06±0.82 per cent, respectively. There was no difference in the values between 12 and 16 weeks of age which were significantly higher than that at 56 weeks of age.
Meat to bone ratio (M: B)
Misikova et al. (1978) reported that the M: B ratio of guinea fowl breast and leg was found to be 1:0.131 and 1:0.215 at 12 weeks while it was 1:0.101 and 1:0.186 at 16 weeks of age.
Mohapatra et al. (1986) reported that the M: B ratio of different cuts were not significantly influenced by t he age of the guinea fowl.
Pandey et al. (1987) reported that no uniform trend was observed in M: B ratio of breast, leg, back, neck and wing cuts when guinea fowl are fed with varying levels of protein and energy.
Meaty cuts (Breast+drum sticks+thighs)
Breast
Hamm et al. (1982) studied the effect of sex on breast weight percentage in guinea fowls and opined that the difference between the two sexes was significant.
Ayeni (1983) reported that in guinea fowl breast weight to that of eviscerated carcass weight at 20 and 50 weeks of age was 23.28 and 37.00 per cent, respectively.
Mohapatra et al. (1986) found that the breast weight per cent of guinea fowl was 29.90±3.25 of the eviscerated carcass weight at 20 weeks of age.
Pandey et al. (1987) reported that there was a significant difference (P&#8804;0.05) in the breast weight among sex as well as age of guinea fowl.
Singh (1988) reported that the breast weight of indigenous guinea fowl was 27.0 ± 0.5 % at 12 weeks of age, 28.3 ± 0.5 % at 14 weeks and 29.9 ± 0.7 % at 16 weeks of age.
Singh et al. (1999) recorded the breast weight per cent to that of eviscerated carcass weight of guinea fowls at 16 weeks of age and reported that in Pearl male it was 31.83±3.12 and Lavender male: 28.92±2.66; Pearl female: 30.46±3.47 and Lavender female: 26.05±4.12.They concluded that breast weight was higher than the other cut up parts and also breast weight of male was higher than female. However, the difference due to variety was not significant.
Sharma et al. (2000) reported that the breast weight at 12, 16 and 56 weeks of age was 28.45 ±0.55, 27.78±0.17 and 27.82±0.57 per cent of eviscerated carcass weight and the difference was not significant.
Drum stick
Ayeni (1983) reported that the drum stick weight ranged from 13 to 17 per cent of eviscerated weight in guinea fowls at 20 weeks of age.
Mohapatra et al. (1985) observed that the drum stick percentage to that of eviscerated carcass at 20 weeks of age in male guinea fowl was 12.87±0.60 and in female: 11.12±0.33 and opined that males have significantly higher drumstick percentage than the females.
Kesarwani (1987) reported that the overall mean of drum stick percentage to that of the eviscerated carcass weight at 12 weeks of age for Pearl male was 12.66±1.09, Pearl female: 12.39±0.29, Lavender male: 12.43±0.14, Lavender female: 12.14±0.37 and at 16 weeks of age Pearl male: 12.92±0.46, Pearl female: 12.51± 0.06, Lavender male: 12.59 ±0.41, Lavender female: 12.51±0.28 and concluded that no significant difference found between the sexes, varieties and ages of the guinea fowl.
Singh et al. (1999) ascertained the drum stick weight of each ten male and female guinea fowl of Pearl and Lavender strains aged 16 weeks and reported that the drum stick weight percentage to that of eviscerated carcass weight in Pearl male was 13.17±1.03; female: 12.63±0.98; Lavender male: 13.87±1.04 and female: 13.06±1.66. They opined that the difference in drum stick weight between the varieties was significant (P&#8804;0.05) and the Lavender was superior to Pearl.
Sharma et al. (2000) evaluated the carcass characteristics of 62 numbers of guinea fowls at 12, 16 and 56 weeks of age and reported that the drum stick weight was 12.97± 0.54, 13.07±0.15 and 13.49±0.21 per cent of the eviscerated carcass weight, respectively. They concluded that the percent yield of drumstick was not significantly (P&#8804;0.05) different at various ages of slaughter.
Thigh:
Hughes et al. (1980) reported that the thigh weight to that of eviscerated weight in guinea fowl was 14-20 per cent at 20 weeks of age.
Ayeni (1983) reported that the thigh weight to that of the eviscerated weight was 17.00 percent at 20 weeks of age.
Mohapatra et al. (1985) found that the thigh weight per cent to that of the eviscerated weight at 20 weeks of age in male guinea fowl was 16.80±0.60 and in female: 14.60±0.36 and concluded that the thigh weight per cent was significantly higher in males than the females.
Kesarwani (1987) reported that the thigh weight per cent to that of total eviscerated weight of the guinea fowls at 8 weeks of age was 15.15± 0.72.
Singh et al. (1999) measured the thigh weight per cent of guinea fowl of 16 weeks of age and reported that it was 14.34±0.66 % in Pearl male, 14.18±0.54 % in Pearl female, 14.91±0.41 % in Lavender male and 14.86±0.45% in Lavender female. A significant difference (P&#8804;0.05) was observed between the varieties and concluded that Lavender was superior to Pearl.
Sharma et al. (2000) reported that at 12, 16 and 56 weeks of age the thigh weight per cent to that of eviscerated weight was 14.35 ± 0.28, 16.26 ± 0.37, 15.24 ± 0.15, respectively. A significant increase in the thigh yield was observed with increase in age of birds.
Boney cuts (Back + neck+ wings)
Back and Neck:
Ayeni (1983) reported that the back and neck weight to that of total eviscerated weight was 20 to 26 per cent at 20 weeks of age.
Mohapatra et al. (1985) observed that in male guinea fowl the back and neck per cent was 20.12±0.66 and 14.14±0.82 of eviscerated weight and in female 20.10±0.77 and 12.85 ±0.68, respectively at 20 weeks of age.
Singh (1988) reported that the back and neck percentage of indigenous guinea fowl together at 12, 14 and 16 weeks of age was 29.4±0.8, 29.1 ± 0.8 and 29.7±0.7, respectively.
Singh et al. (1999) measured the different carcass cuts of Pearl and Lavender varieties of guinea fowls and reported that the back and neck per cent together to that of eviscerated weight in Pearl male was 25.44±1.25 and in female: 24.65±2.41 and that of Lavender male: 26.00±1.66 and female: 25.99±1.84 respectively. They concluded that Lavender has got more back and neck percentage than Pearl.
Sharma et al. (2000) reported that the average back weight percentage of 62 numbers guinea fowls at 12, 16 and 56 weeks of age were 23.63±0.51, 24.32±0.25 and 26.75± 0.34 and that of neck was 5.46±0.28, 5.71±0.16 and 5.86±0.18 per cent, respectively to that of eviscerated weight and noted that the percent yield of back did not differ between 12 and 16 weeks of age but there was a significant increase at 56 week of age. However, the neck cut showed a non significant difference between the different ages.
Wings:
Ayeni (1983) reported that the wing weight to that of the total eviscerated weight of the carcass was 12 to 16 per cent at 20 weeks of age.
Singh, (1988) reported that the wing weight at 12, 14 and 16 weeks of age in indigenous guinea fowls was 15.7±0.3, 14.5±0.3 and 15.1±0.3 per cent, respectively to that of the eviscerated carcass weight.
Sharma et al. (2000) observed that the wing weight to that of total eviscerated weight of Pearl guinea fowl at 12, 16 and 56 weeks of age were 14.21 ± 0.34, 13.88 ± 0.15 and 12.71 ± 0.32 per cent, respectively. The wing per cent yield did not differ between the above age groups.
Conformation traits:
Conformation traits viz. shank length, keel length and breast angle have been given considerable attention because of their economic importance in broiler industry. Keel length and breast angle indicates degree of fleshing and give a good appearance to the carcass. They are also directly related to the growth rate. Breast conformation has been measured in different ways such as breast angle, breast width and body depth etc.
However, shank length has no direct bearing on the economy of the broiler production, but its importance has been felt as a criterion of body conformation because it is closely related with body weight at a juvenile age (Kesarwani, 1987)
Shank length
Brah and Sandhu (1986) reported that the average shank length in adult guinea fowl of 16 weeks age was 6.30 ± 0.71 cm in male and the corresponding value in female was 5.77 ± 0.02 cm.
Mundra et al. (1993) reported that the mean values of shank length for both the sexes at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age was 4.6±0.01, 6.2±0.01 and 7.8±0.02 cm, respectively.
Sanjeevkumar (1995) reported that the mean values of shank length at 8 and 12 weeks of age for Lavender variety of guinea fowl was 5.56±0.04 and 6.68±0.05cm; for Pearl it was 5.5±0.06 and 6.04±0.06 and White had 5.51±0.03, and 6.03±0.03 cm, respectively. The difference between the varieties was significant (P&#8804;0.01) only at 12 weeks of age and concluded that Lavender has longer shank length compared to White and Pearl guinea fowls.
Singh et al. (1999) reported that at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age male guinea fowls had a shank length of 4.66±0.03, 6.36±0.03 and 7.27±0.23 cm respectively and females had 4.56±0.02, 6.20±0.02 and 6.88±0.02cm respectively, for the corresponding period.
Porwal et al. (2002) measured the shank length of 359 numbers of guinea fowls of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age and reported the average length to be 3.22±0.01, 4.27±0.01, 5.37±0.02 and 6.98±0.01 cm, respectively.
Keel length
Barah and Sandhu (1986) reported that the average keel length of adult male guinea fowl at 16 weeks of age was 15.3±0.01cm and in female of the same age it was 15.0±0.87 cm.
Mundra et al. (1993) reported that the mean values of keel length in both sexes of guinea fowls at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age was 5.9±0.01, 7.9±0.01 and 9.3±0.03 cm, respectively.
Sanjeebkumar (1995) reported that at 8 and 12 weeks of age the keel length of Lavender variety of guinea fowl was 7.17±0.05 and 8.81±0.08cm, Pearl: 6.92±0.07 and 8.62± 0.10cm and that of White was 7.07±0.03 and 8.73±0.04cm respectively. The difference of keel length was significant (P&#8804;0.01) for all the age groups. He concluded that Lavender strain had longer keel length than White and Pearl varieties.
Singh et al. (1999)observed that at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age in male guinea fowl the keel length was 6.17±0.04, 8.13±0.05 and 9.87± 0.44cm and for the same age in female it was 6.07±0.03, 7.79±0.03 and 9.32±0.03 cm, respectively and opined that effect of sex and age was not significant.
Porwal et al. (2002) analyzed data from 359 numbers indigenous guinea fowls and reported that the average keel length at 4, 8 12 and 16 weeks of age was 4.16±0.01, 7.41 ±0.03, 8.81±0.02 and 9.96±0.02 cm, respectively and concluded that significant difference was observed between the above weeks
Breast angle:
Barah and Sandhu (1986) reported that the average breast angle at 12 and 16 weeks of age for male guinea fowl was 34.230±0.21 and 37.140±0.25 while it was 34.090±0.14 and 36.530±0.18 for female birds at the corresponding age.
Mundra et al. (1993) observed that the breast angle for both sexes of guinea fowl was at 12 weeks of age was 36.00±0.09 and at 16 weeks of age it was 41.80±0.08.
Singh et al. (1999) reported that the mean breast angle at 12 and 16 weeks of age for male guinea fowls was 34.20±0.21 and 37.10±0.26; and for female guinea fowl of the same age it was 34.10± 0.14 and 36.50±0.180, respectively.
Porwal et al. (2002) observed that the breast angle of guinea fowls at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age was 20.740±0.10, 25.170±0.07 and 36.190±0.06, respectively.
Proximate Chemical composition of Guinea Fowl Meat:
Chemical composition of meat is one of the most important characteristics which determine its excellence as a food. The quality of meat is mainly governed by its chemical composition. Moisture, protein, ether extract and total ash mainly constitutes the proximate composition of meat and accounts nearly 100% of its weight of animal tissue, where as vitamins, minerals and amino acids accounts only in trace amounts (Huges, 1980).
Moisture:
Vietsman et al. (1975) found that the moisture content of Caucasian breed of male guinea fowl breast muscle at 90 and 365 days of age was 73.1 to 75.3 and 74.1 to 74.9 per cent, and in female: 72.6 to 74.8 and 74.6 to 76.8; in leg muscle 76.5 to 74.4 and 78.1 to 75.1 per cent in male and 75.8 to 76.52 and 74.0 to 74.5 per cent in female, respectively for the same period.
Cappa and Casti (1978) reported that the moisture percentage of male guinea fowl was 72.86 and New Hampshire chicken 72.88 per cent and did not find any significant difference in moisture content between male guinea fowl and New Hampshire chicken.
Hamm et al. (1982) reported that in breast meat of guinea fowls, the dry matter content was 25.4 per cent; where as in thigh meat it was 24.0 per cent.
Ayeni (1983) analyzed the chemical composition of guinea fowl meat and found the moisture content to be 63.09 per cent.
Mohapatra et al. (1986) reported that the moisture content of the breast meat of male guinea fowl was 74.99±0.22 % and in female: 74.42±0.03 % .
Mohapatra (Loc cit) further found that in male guinea fowl the moisture content of leg meat was 74.41±0.03 and in female: 75.67±0.12 per cent.
Kesarwani (1987) reported that in guinea fowls the moisture content of whole meat at the age of 16 weeks for Pearl male was 72.21±0.46 and for female :72.21±0.46; for Lavender male: 72.63±0.08 and female: 72.55±0.11 per cent, respectively and concluded that the effect of variety and age was insignificant.
Mohan and Sundaresan (2002) reported that moisture content in winter was 72.06 ± 0.65 – 73.84±0.% and in Summer: 71.27±0.60 – 72.21±0.67% in guinea fowls of 20 weeks of age and concluded that birds slaughtered during winter had higher percentage of moisture compared to birds slaughtered during summer.
Protein:
Cappa and Casti (1978) reported that the protein content of guinea fowl meat was 25.78 % and New Hampshire chicken: 24.66 % and opined that there was no significant difference between them.
Hamm et al. (1982) reported that the breast meat of guinea fowl contained 22.7 per cent protein and thigh meat had 19.4 per cent protein.
Ayeni (1983) opined that the protein content of guinea fowl meat to be 28.77 per cent.
Mahapatra et al. (1986) reported that the breast meat of male guinea fowl contained 23.22±0.02 and leg meat 21.55±0.4 and in female breast meat 23.11±0.16 and leg meat 21.22 ±0.4 per cent protein.
Mohan and Sundaresan (2002) reported that in winter season the protein content of guinea fowl breast meat was 20.86±0.57 -23.08±0.6 % and in summer :21.5±0.63 - 23.76±0.65 % and concluded that birds slaughtered in winter has lower percentage of protein in breast meat compared to summer.
Ash:
Capa and Casti (1978) found the ash percentage of guinea fowl meat to be 1.55 per cent and that of New Hampshire chicken: 1.62 per cent and concluded that there was no significant difference between them.
Hamm et al. (1982) reported the ash content of breast meat of guinea fowls as 1.06 per cent and that of thigh meat: 1.05 per cent.
Ayeni (1983) noted that ash content of guinea fowl meat was 2.54 per cent.
Mohapatra et al. (1986) reported that the total ash content of breast meat of male guinea fowl was 1.26±0.99 and in female: 1.09±0.05 per cent respectively, while in leg meat of male it was 1.52±0.03 and female: 1.02±0.04 per cent, respectively.
Kesrwani.(1987) reported that the total ash content of guinea fowl whole meat at 16 weeks of age for Pearl male was 1.00±0.13 and female: 0.87±0.15 % and for Lavender male: 1.04 ±0.11 and for female: 1.12±0.04 per cent, respectively. He concluded that there was no significant difference between the sex and age in total ash content of the guinea fowl.
Pandey et al. (1987) reported that the ash content of 10 weeks old guinea fowl meat was 1.2±0.2 per cent.
Mohan and Sundaresan (2002) reported that the ash content of guinea fowls in summer season was 1.35±0.60 – 1.49±0.63 and in winter 1.60±0.52 – 1.65±0.68 per cent, respectively. They concluded that birds slaughtered during winter season had higher percentage of total ash compared to summer.
Ether Extract
Cappa and Casti (1978) reported the ether extract content of guinea fowl meat to be 2.52 and New Hampshire chicken 2.7 per cent and did not find any significant difference between them.
Hamm et al. (1982) reported that in the breast meat of guinea fowl hexane extractable was 0.86 per cent and in leg meat: 2.2 per cent, respectively.
Ayeni (1983) analyzed the chemical composition of guinea fowl meat and found the ether extract per cent to be 5.60.
Mahapatra et al. (1986) reported that the ash content of breast meat of male guinea fowl was 2.19±0.05 and in female 2.20±0.04 per cent and for leg meat 2.59±0.24 and 1.52± 0.03 per cent for mate and female respectively.
Kesrwani (1987) reported that the ether extract content of guinea fowl meat from the whole carcass at 16 weeks of age for Pearl male was 1.95±0.16 %, female 1.69±0.42 % and for Lavender male: 1.52±0.33 and female 2.31±0.16 per cent and concluded that ether extract of the whole meat increased significantly with the increase in the age of the birds and it was higher in Lavender than Pearl and also in females than in males.
Mohan and Sundaresan (2002) reported that the ether extract content in guinea fowl meat in winter season was 2.78±0.66 – 3.39±0.70 % and in summer: 2.99±0.95 – 4.79±1.05 per cent, respectively and concluded that season had major effect on physico-chemical and proximate composition of meat.
Pandey et al. (1987) reported that at 10 weeks of age the E.E content of guinea fowl meat was 1.6±0.1 per cent.
Cholesterol:
Cholesterol has attracted much attention in recent years as a factor responsible for cardio vascular disease in human beings. However, there are always conflicting evidences regarding the relationship of dietary cholesterol to heart disease.
Hamm et al. (1982) reported that the total cholesterol in raw breast and leg meat of guinea fowl was 40.6 and 62.1 mg / 100g of meat, respectively. They remarked that this value was fairly lower than that of the broiler chicken meat.
Mahapatra et al. (1986) reported that cholesterol content of the breast meat in male and female guinea fowl was 70.06±2.98 and 64.48±2.66 mg/100g respectively and that of leg meat in male and female guinea fowl 54.40±2.13 and 50.40±1.28 mg/100g respectively
Kesarwani (1987) reported that the cholesterol content of guinea fowl meat at 16 weeks of age in Pearl male guinea fowl was 24.24±0.14 and in female 33.67±1.68 mg/100g and that of Lavender male: 18.80±0.10 and female: 22.94±0.62 mg/100g of meat. He found that Pearl females had the higher cholesterol content and concluded that cholesterol was significantly (P&#8804;0.01) influenced by age, variety and sex of the birds.
Singh (1997) reported that guinea fowl meat contains less cholesterol than chicken meat.

Rajmanohar et al. (2005) reported that in hybrid commercial broiler chicken reared under deep litter system of management the cholesterol content of the breast meat ranged from 57.90 ± 0.78 – 72.90 ± 0.61 and that of the hybrid commercial chicken in cage system of management was 57.45 ± 0.20 – 71.13 ± 0.67 mg/100g, respectively.
Rajmanohar (loc cit) in the same experiment further reported that the thigh meat cholesterol content under deep litter ranged from 105.45±0.15 – 112.41±0.20 and under cage system: 105.01±0.08 -111.73±0.15 mg/100g of meat.

CHAPTER – III


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Location of the experiment
The research work entitled “Influence of sex, strain and season on growth and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)” was carried out in the Department of Anima Production, Orissa Veterinary College, and Bhubaneswar during the year 2002-03. The biological trial was carried out at the Central Poultry Development Organization, Bhubaneswar where three strains of guinea fowls viz. Pearl, Lavender and White are maintained.
Experimental programme
The experiment was carried out for three seasons of the year that is winter (October, November, December and January ); summer ( February, March, April and May ) and rainy ( June, July, August and September ). In each season 30 numbers of male and equal numbers of female birds (constituting three replicates of 10 birds from each sex ) were reared from each of the three strains viz. Pearl, Lavender and White from day old till 20 weeks of age. The body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded fortnightly from day-old up to the age of 20 weeks. At the end of 20 weeks, three birds from each replicate were selected at random for the study of haematological, bio-chemical, biological and carcass quality of meat.(This has to be checked)
General management
Before the onset of experiment the poultry house was cleaned, disinfected and dried thoroughly. The walls were white washed with lime. Malathion (0.5%) was sprayed in and around the experimental site.
From the CPDO hatchery, 60 numbers of unsexed thrifty and healthy looking day old keets without any deformity like broken legs or wings were selected from each strain of guinea fowl viz. Pearl, Lavender and White. The keets were then leg banded and transferred into the previously cleaned and disinfected brooder house. Each pen was provided with a clean and disinfected floor brooder maintained at the temperature of 32 to 340C by fitting incandescent bulbs in it. Clean and disinfected feeder and covered water fountains were provided in the pens as per requirement. Ad libitum feeding was practiced. (How it is written that 10 birds from each sex were taken in the experiment?
Composition of guinea fowl ration:
Ingredients Parts
Yellow Maize - 57.0
Rice polish - 3.0
Soybean meal - 27.0
Fish meal - 10.0
Mineral mixture - 2.75
Vitamin premix - 0.25
Total - 100.00 parts
The above ration contained 22% CP, 2900ME KCal/kg.




Experimental technique
Physical characteristics
Recording of body weight and calculation of body weight gain
First of all the keets were separated into different sexes.(Was day old sexing practiced?) The day old keets were weighed individually by keeping them inside a netted sling suspended from a circular spring balance of maximum weighing capacity of 1kg. The keets were kept in the brooder house maintained at 95Fº, (we must put degree) for 4 weeks. This was practiced till the brooding period of 4 weeks was over. At four weeks of age the keets were transferred to the grower house and birds were weighed in an electronic balance accurate to 1g there after. The body weight gain in the current fortnight (What is its meaning?) was found out by deducting the body weight of the previous fortnight from that of the current fortnight. Body weight and weight gain of male and female guinea fowls for ten fortnights for each three seasons and for each strain (Is it strain or variety?) were calculated.
Recording of feed consumption and estimation of feed conversion ratio (FCR)
Birds were fed ad libitum. At the end of each fortnight the feed consumption was calculated by subtracting the residual feed from the amount of feed provided at the beginning to the particular group of birds in each treatment. This procedure was repeated for both male and female guinea fowls for each three strains( Should we write varieties?) for three seasons of the year.
The FCR was obtained by dividing the total feed consumed by the birds in a particular fortnight with the total body weight gain during that period.
Estimation of haematological traits
Collection of blood
The wing vein which is present on the ventral surface of the humeral radial ulnar joint directly beneath the skin was punctured with a 23 gauze needle and blood was collected in a micro blood collection tube with EDTA.
For the separation of plasma, blood was centrifuged at 500rpm for 10 minutes. The separated plasma was aspirated into a cleaned dry labeled vial and stored at -170C until analyzed.
Haemoglobin (Hb) estimation
Hb concentration in the blood was determined by Sahli-Hellige acid haematin method by the help of Sahli haemoglobinometer.
Procedure: 0.1 N Hcl (What is the concentration?) was taken in haemoglobinometer tube up to the mark 10 in the percentage side. 0.02ml of blood was drawn up to the mark into the haemoglobinometer pipette and transferred into the haemoglobinometer, mixed and allowed to stand for three minutes. Distilled water was added to the content gradually and stirred till the colour of the fluid matches with the colour of the two standard prisms of the haemoglobinometer. From the level of the fluid haemoglobin was determined as g %.
Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC):
Blood was drawn into the RBC pipette up to 0.5 mark and diluted with Natt-Herick diluting fluid up to 101 mark. The bulb of the pipette was rotated to mix the blood uniformly with diluting fluid, discarding first few drops from the pipette, the Neubauers slide counting chamber was charged with the diluted blood and covered with a cover slip. Before counting a little time was allowed to settle the cells.
The red blood cells present in the five chambers (4 corners and 1 in the middle) were counted and multiplied by 10,000 and expressed as million RBC per cu.mm.of blood.(Why this is multiplied by 10,000?)
Total Leucocyte Count (TLC)
The Neubauer’s slide was charged as described previously and the numbers of leucocytes present were counted in all the WBC squares. The total number was multiplied by 50 and expressed as total leucocyte per cubic mm of blood.(Why this is multiplied by 50?)
Differential Leucocyte Count (DC)
The air dried blood smear(Was it drawn on a glass slide?) was fixed with few drops of methanol for one minute and stained with Giemsa stain for 45 minutes, washed under tap water, air dried again and observed under microscope.
Heterophils: Mature heterophils were with coloured nucleus and stained pink.
Basophils: They had purple colour nucleus and cytoplasm.
Eosinophils: Red coloured non segmented nucleus and pale grey cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes: The nucleus covers the entire cytoplasm.
Monocytes: These are largest in size and had a horse shoe shaped nucleus and blue colour cytoplasm.
Carcass traits:
At the end of 10th fortnight three healthy birds from each replicate of both the sexes were selected from White, Lavender and Pearl strains in winter, summer and rainy season. The selected birds were separated from the flock and fasted overnight but drinking water was provided ad libitum. Birds were weighed individually in the morning prior to slaughter for record of live weight.
The birds were slaughtered by improved Kosher method by severing the jugular vein and carotid artery below the left ear lobe by a single incision and allowed to bleed for five minutes. After complete bleeding and cessation of movement the carcass weight was recorded. The carcass was then scalded at 55-58oC for 90 seconds and defeathered by an electric circular feather plucker starting from the tail, wing sides, legs, back and neck region of the scalded bird. Left over pin feathers were removed manually with a pinning knife. Singeing was done to remove pilo-plumes by passing the carcass quickly over a flame. The oil gland from the tail region, the head from the occipital joint and the feet from the hock joint were severed and removed.
Evisceration was performed by giving a transverse incision at the abdomen between the keel and vent and then a circular incision around the vent to cut open the abdominal cavity. The entire visceral organs were then pulled out through the opening made. The inedible organs like wind pipe, esophagus, crop and all portions of the intestinal tract, vent spleen, lungs, epicardium, ovaries and testis and gall bladder were removed. The liver was clipped from the viscera and the gall bladder was separated from it. The arteries were trimmed and the heart was removed from the viscera. The pericardium and the blood clots were removed from the heart. Gizzard was separated from the viscera by cutting the duodenum from it, cut opened and washed. The inner serous lining was removed.
The eviscerated carcass along with the edible offals were weighed and recorded as edible carcass yield. The total meat yield was calculated subtracting the giblet weight(the weight if heart without pericardium, liver without gall bladder and gizzard without the serous lining) from the weight of the edible carcass.
Meaty cuts:
It is the weight of the breast, both the drum sticks and thighs together.
.Boney cuts:
It is the weight of both the wings, neck and the back together

All the above recorded weights were subjected for further analysis to get their respective percentage yield, based on the calculation given below.
Live weight at slaughter (g)



Total processing loss % = Live wt –(Blood,feather,inedible offals) X 100
Live wt
Edible carcass yield % = Edible carcass wt X 100
Live wt

Giblets wt % = Wt of the giblets X 100
Live wt

Total meat yield % = Total meat yield X 100
Live wt

Meaty cut % = Wt. of Breast + drum sticks + thighs X 100
Total meat yield

Boney cut % = Wt of wings + neck + back X 100
Total meat yield

Bone: Meat ratio
Carcasses from each replicates was utilized to determine the bone: meat ratio (B: M). Eviscerated carcasses were divided into 6 cuts as mentioned earlier. Meat was separated from each cut manually and weighed. The ratio of bone is to meat was calculated for the whole carcass.
Keel length
The jaws of the Vernier calipers were placed between the anterior and posterior edge of the keel bone to measure the keel length in centimeters.
Shank length
The measurement was taken by placing the jaw of the vernier calipers between the bock and carpal joint which constitute the length of the tarso-metatarsus bone, to the nearest of 0.1cm accuracy.
Breast angle
Breast angle was measured in degrees by a Virginia ‘breastometer’ at the age of 20 weeks. The breastometer was placed approximately 2.5cm posterior to the anterior edge of the keel bone for measuring the breast angle.
Chemical composition of meat
Proximate composition
The proximate composition such as moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash content of guinea fowl meat form the whole carcasses were made according to the procedure of AOAC (1975).
Determination of moisture
About 20g of minced meat was taken in an aluminum moisture cup and dried in a hot air oven for 18 hours at 100 ± 5°C. The cups were cooled in a desiccator and weighed. This process was repeated till a congruent weight was obtained. Loss in weight was reported as moisture content.
Determination of crude protein (Micro-Kjeldahl distillation method)
About 2g minced meat was weighed and transferred to a Kjeldahl flask. 25ml of conc. H2SO4 and a pinch of digestion mixture (95parts sodium sulphate and 5 parts copper sulphate) was added to it and digested until the solution turned colourless. The digested samples were made to 250ml volume by adding dist. water. 5ml of the aliquot was taken into a micro-Kjeldahl distillation until and 10ml of 40% sodium hydroxide was added to it. 10ml of Tashiro’s indicator was taken in a conical flask and the sliver to be was dipped into it and the sample was heated by passing steam into it until 30ml of the distilled was collected in the conical flask.
Then it was titrated with standard N/10 H2SO4 to light pink end point.
Calculation
total protein % = ml. of N/10 H2SO4 consumed x 0.0002 x250 X 6.25 x 100
Wt. of the sample aliquot x Vol. taken
Determination of ether extract
About 2g of minced meat was taken in a thimble and extracted for 8 hours with petroleum ether (B.P. range 40-60°C) in a soxhlet extractor. Flasks were dried in the oven at 80°C for 30 minutes. Cooled in desiccator and weighed.
Calculation
Ether extract % = W2 – W1 X 100
W0
Where W0 = Weight of the sample
W1 = Weight of empty oil flask
W2 = Weight of oil flask + ether extract
Determination of total ash
About 2g of minced meat was weighed in silica crucible and heated until charred. The crucible was then placed in a muffle furnace at 6000C for one hour until white ash was obtained. The crucible was cooled in a desiccator and weighed. This process was continued till a constant weight was obtained.
Calculation total Ash % = W2 – W0 X 100
W1-W0
Where
W0 = weight of the empty crucible
W1 = Weight of the crucible with sample
W2 = Weight of the crucible with ash
Determination of meat cholesterol
Preparation of lipid extract
The lipid extract of the meat was made as per the procedure described by Bligh and Dyer (1959).
Preparation of solvent extract
The solvent was prepared by the Roles and Traut (1959) method involving the following steps.
(i) Ethanol – Absolute ethanol was distilled after adding anhydrous Na2SO4 discarding the light and heavy fractions each amounting to 10% of the total volume.
(ii) Petroleum ether (B.P. range 40-600C). It was redistilled over anhydrous Na2SO4 and light and heavy tractions each amounting to 10% of total volume was discarded.
(iii) Diethyl ether – Diethyl ether was made perodixe free by washing with 10% solution of ferrous sulphate three times. It was then distilled over KOH pellets discarding the first and last 10% portions.
(iv) Chloroform – Chloroform was distilled over anhydrous sodium sulphate discarding the first and last 10% fractions.
(v) Methanol – It was distilled as that of chloroform described above.
Extraction:
20g of minced meat was taken in a beaker. 2 ml dist. water was added to it. 20ml. chloroform and 40ml methanol were added. The meat slurry was homogenized for 2 minutes. To it 20mldist water was added and blended for ½ minute and the homogenate was filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper on Coor’s No. 3 sintered funnel with suction. The filtrate was transferred to a 100ml measuring cylinder and after 10 minutes the volume of chloroform layer present at the bottom was recorded and the same was transferred to a separating funnel and collected which contained the Ether Extract. A small volume of chloroform layer was left in the separating funnel to ensure complete removal of alcoholic layer. The lipid with held in the residue was recovered by blending it with a total of 10 ml chloroform. This filtrate was mixed with the original filtrate prior to removal of the alcoholic layer.
Estimation of total cholesterol
Total cholesterol was estimated as per the procedure of Wooten (1964).
Chemicals
1. Glacial Acetic acid (Aldehyde free)
2. Fe Cl36H2O solution (10%) (10g of FeCl3 6H2O dissolved in 100ml Glacial acetic acid)
3. Conc. Sulphuric acid
4. Colour reagent – To 15 ml of conc. H2SO4 1ml of FeCl3. 6H2O solution was added and mixed thoroughly. The volume was made to 100ml with conc. H2SO4 and mixed thoroughly.
Cholesterol standard – 100mg of pure dry cholesterol was dissolved in 100mg glacial acetic acid
Saponification of lipid extract
Saponification of the lipid extract was done as per the method described by James (1960).
10ml of the lipid extract in chloroform as prepared above was taken in a Erlenmeyer flask and evaporated to dryness at 45°C under vacuum. 15ml of alcoholic KOH was added to it and refluxed for 2 hours. Ethanol was then removed at 45°C by a vacuum evaporator, 20ml of dist. water was added to it and the solution was extracted with 20ml of petroleum ether (B.P. range 40-60°C) for 3 times to remove the non-saponitiable materials. The lower aqueous layer was utilized for methyl ester formation of fatty acids. The upper petroleum ether layer was washed with distillation water till it was alkali free. Then it was filtered through no. 1 what man filter paper over anhydrous sodium sulphate and evaporated to dryness in vacuum. This was made to a know volume by adding chloroform, which was then utilized for cholesterol estimation.
Method of cholesterol estimation
0.4ml of the above sample in chloroform was taken in a test tube and kept in a water bath at 60°C for chloroform to evaporate 6.1ml of glacial acetic acid was added to it and mixed. In another test tube 6mlof glacial acetic acid was taken and 0.1ml of standard was added and mixed. Blank was prepared by taking 6.1ml of glacial acid in separate test tube. To all the samples, standard and blank tubes 4.0ml freshly prepared colour reagent was added carefully by pouring the reagent along the sides of the test tubes form a layer under the acetic acid. The contents were mixed and allowed to cool down form 20 minutes. The colours were compared in a spectrophotometer at 570nm.
Calculation
Cholesterol conc. (x) (mg.100ml) Reading of unknown X conc. of standard
Reading of standard

Cholesterol
(mg/g of meat) (x) x Final vol. of sample x vol. of lipid extract X100
Vol. of extract taken for saponification grams of sample taken

Biochemical estimations
Quantitative estimation of Triglycerides
Enzymatic estimation of serum triglyceride by Glycerol – Phosphate – oxidase (GPO) – Dihydroxy acetone phosphate (GPO-DAP) end point assay method.
KIT No. ; LG 601 (Manufactured by Cognet, Sachin India)
Procedure: 10µl blood was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes and 10µl serum was aspired out with a micro pipette from the supernatant fluid and mixed with 1000µl of Reagent-1. A standard as prepared with 10µl of Reagent-2 added to 1000µl of dist. water. Both the solutions were incubated at 370C for 10 minutes and then used in the analyzer.
The auto analyzer Systronic-635 was programmed with a blank reagent by measuring the absorbance of 10 µl of the standard solution, followed by10 µl the test solution at 505 nm. The result was calculated as
Triglyceride (mg/dl) Absorbance of test X 200
Absorbance of standard
Quantitative determination of serum cholesterol
Enzymatic estimation of serum cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase hydrogen peroxidase phenol (CHOD-PAP) end point assay method (KIT NO. LG 051). Manufactured by Cognet, Sachin, India
Procedure – Same as above
Total cholesterol concentration (Mg/dl) = Absorbance of test X 200
Absorbance of standard

Quantitative estimation HDL
PEG (Poly Ethylene Glycerol) precipitates end point method.
Kit manufactured by Crescent Bio-system, Goa, India
Procedure- A standard solution was prepared by taking 0.05 ml solution from the kit marked S and incubated at 37 C for 5 minutes and marked as ‘standard’
10 ml of the sample blood mixed with EDTA was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes and 0.1 ml plasma was aspirated out from the supernatant fluid with micro pipette and mixed with0.1 ml precipitating reagent taken from the kit marked as L-1. The mixture was incubated at 37 C for 5 minutes to obtain a clear supernatant fluid and marked as 'test’
0.05 ml each from test and standard solution are used in the auto analyzer Systronic-635 and the result was calculated as follows.
HDL mg/dl=Absorbance of the test X 50
Absorbance of the standard


Quantitative estimation of LDL and VLDL
LDL is calculated by Freidewald’s formula
LDL mg/dl = Total serum Cholesterol – Triglyceride/5 – HDL
VLDL mg/dl = Total serum Cholesterol – Triglyceride/5 – HDL – LDL


















CHAPTER – IV
RESULTS
4.1.1 Body weight
The mean live body weight of male and female guinea fowls (White, Lavender and Pearl strains) during winter, summer and rainy seasons is presented in Table 1 to 7. The mean day-old body weight of different strains (White, Lavender and Pearl strains) of guinea fowl keets ranged from 21.82±0.14g (Pearl during summer, Table 6) to 23.43±0.13g (Lavender during rainy, Table 5), but the day-old body weight of White strain of guinea fowl keets remained intermediary. A non- significant (P&#8804;0.05) difference between male and female keets was observed in the day old body weight of White(male:22.68±0.17,female:22.24±0.16g),Lavender(male:22.73±0.17g,female:22.46±0.16g) and Pearl(male:22.33±0.18, female22.66±0.19g) strains (Table 1, 2, and 3).It was also observed that no significant difference existed in the day old body weight between White(22.46±0.13g), Lavender(22.59±0.17g and Pearl(22.49±0.17g) strains (Table 7)
A significant difference in the live body weight between sexes was manifested from 5th fortnight onwards (till 10th fortnight) in the Pearl, (Table 3), from 6th fortnight onwards in Lavender ( Table 2) and from 7th fortnight onwards in the White (Table 1).A non-significant difference in the live body weight was noted between sexes prior to these periods. Considering 5th fortnight as slaughterable age, it was observed that the White strain male had a body weight of 657.37±21.77g (Table 1), being the highest, followed by 646.80±33.34g (Table 2) in Lavender male and 638.30±22.38g (Table 1) in White female. The live body weight took an increasing trend from zero fortnights to 10th fortnight in males and females during all the seasons and strains of guinea fowls.

Table1. Sex-wise fortnightly mean body weights (g) of White guinea fowl
Sex /Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Male
22.68ª 110.34ª 216.05ª 347.78ª 485.51ª 657.37ª 797.49ª 920.89ª 1025.82ª 1120.09ª 1204.73ª
±0.17 ±8.74 ±18.26 ±22.70 ±24.36 ±21.77 ±23.42 ±24.48 ±26.05 ±28.22 ±29.41
Female
22.24ª 115.73ª 233.18ª 358.46ª 501.62ª 638.30ª 759.48ª 867.93b 967.59b 1056.16b 1134.91b
±0.16 ±7.30 ±16.80 ±22.05 ±23.98 ±22.38 ±23.70 ±23.64 ±26.76 ±29.67 ±30.74

Table 2. Sex-wise fortnightly mean body weight (g) of Lavender guinea fowl
Sex /Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Male
22.73ª 118.61ª 224.76ª 344.00ª 483.99ª 646.80ª 780.59ª 899.38ª 992.86ª 1068.03ª 1138.17ª
±0.17 ±6.90 ±15.25 ±25.44 ±32.39 ±33.34 ±36.74 ±36.81 ±37.29 ±33.49 ±30.95
Female 22.46ª 112.57ª 209.51ª 319.71ª 455.48ª 601.43ª 724.49b 825.94b 914.38b 988.53b 1058.62b
±0.16 ±6.88 ±15.14 ±25.58 ±32.70 ±32.62 ±35.42 ±36.72 ±35.44 ±30.37 ±30.99

Table 3. Sex-wise fortnightly mean body weights (g) of Pearl guinea fowl
Sex /Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Male
22.33ª 104.74ª 204.46ª 313.90ª 439.78ª 587.99ª 711.84ª 816.27ª 905.04ª 984.07ª 1057.86ª
±0.18 ±5.89 ±14.01 ±19.99 ±26.10 ±10.18 ±12.42 ±20.53 ±23.31 ±26.68 ±24.31
Female
22.66ª 95.45ª 177.92ª 274.16ª 384.87a 525.80b 639.41b 730.11b 824.16b 919.54b 998.38b
±0.19 ±5.98 ±14.42 ±19.19 ±25.05 ±10.06 ±15.93 ±20.31 ±23.84 ±26.54 ±27.27
Means bearing different superscripts in a column differ significantly (P<0.05)

Table 4. Season-wise fortnightly mean body weights (g) of White guinea fowl
Season/Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Winter
22.62ª 123.13ª 248.07ª 382.40ª 535.83ª 698.13ª 838.08ª 958.38ª 1063.87ª 1158.73ª 1239.50ª
±0.17 ±10.75 ±20.83 ±26.03 ±26.37 ±22.39 ±11.54 ±18.07 ±15.60 ±14.44 ±16.99

Summer
21.95ª 95.03ª 188.73ª 291.28b 422.28b 565.18b 674.10b 786.28b 884.50b 970.10b 1048.83b
±0.18 ±10.11 ±22.30 ±26.79 ±26.69 ±23.11 ±12.64 ±18.67 ±15.90 ±13.94 ±17.85
Rainy 22.82ª 120.95ª 237.05ª 362.33a 522.58ª 680.18ª 823.27ª 938.57ª 1041.75ª 1135.53ª 1221.13ª
±0.18 ±9.23 ±22.77 ±26.74 ±26.82 ±23.23 ±11.97 ±19.67 ±15.64 ±13.02 ±16.90

Table 5. Season-wise fortnightly mean body weight (g) of Lavender guinea fowl
Season/Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Winter
22.05ª 138.22ª 265.08ª 414.42ª 573.22ª 736.75ª 885.95ª 1003.45ª 1083.65ª 1139.13ª 1197.05ª
±0.16 ±5.86 ±10.14 ±13.36 ±15.16 ±15.97 ±12.93 ±17.04 ±15.38 ±16.27 ±17.31
Summer 22.30ª 113.92ª 206.06ª 296.13ª 413.18b 553.80b 674.17b 780.48b 872.35b 952.17b 1025.45b
±0.13 ±5.64 ±10.43 ±14.25 ±13.65 ±14.28 ±14.21 ±14.45 ±15.00 ±15.02 ±16.00
Rainy 23.43ª 94.63ª 180.25ª 285.02b 422.80b 581.80b 697.50b 804.05b 904.85b 993.54b 1072.68b
±0.13 ±3.44 ±10.79 ±14.85 ±15.57 ±14.19 ±14.96 ±16.70 ±15.44 ±15.81 ±16.02
Means bearing different superscripts in a column differ significantly (P<0.05)

Table 6. Season-wise fortnightly mean body weight (g) of Pearl guinea fowl
Season/Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Winter
22.87ª 110.90ª 215.62ª 328.12ª 458.25ª 622.58ª 761.78ª 856.02ª 945.53ª 1041.62ª 1113.27ª
±0.12 ±6.46 ±5.78 ±6.94 ±7.03 ±3.33 ±5.70 ±14.06 ±15.32 ±16.47 ±18.34
Summer
21.82ª 97.25ª 184.88ª 286.70ab 393.67b 510.58b 607.27b 694.50b 778.50b 855.53b 928.50b
±0.14 ±6.28 ±5.72 ±6.65 ±7.75 ±1.48 ±6.42 ±14.64 ±15.55 ±16.82 ±17.72
Rainy
22.80ª 92.14ª 173.07ª 267.27b 385.05b 537.52b 657.83c 769.05c 869.77c 958.27c 1042.58c
±0.18 ±6.73 ±6.99 ±7.97 ±8.80 ±2.84 ±5.52 ±16.78 ±15.92 ±14.41 ±17.92



Table 7. Fortnightly mean body weight (g) of White, Lavender and Pearl strains of guinea fowl.
Strain/Fortnight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
White
22.46ª 113.04ª 224.61ª 353.12ª 493.57ª 647.83ª 778.48ª 894.41ª 996.71ª 1088.12ª 1169.82ª
±0.13 ±5.56 ±11.59 ±15.41 19.22 ±19.87 ±20.82 ±21.18 ±21.14 ±21.99 ±22.63
Lavender
22.59ª 115.59ª 217.13ª 331.86ª 469.73ª 624.12ab 752.54ab 862.66ab 953.62a 1028.28ab 1098.39ab
±0.17 ±5.13 ±9.63 ±15.85 ±20.06 ±22.32 ±25.67 ±27.74 ±26.71 ±23.96 ±22.13
Pearl
22.49ª 100.10ª 191.19ª 294.03ª 412.32ª 556.89b 675.63b 773.19c 864.60b 951.81b 1028.12b
±0.17 ±3.11 ±7.61 ±10.94 14.51 ±15.95 ±19.60 ±21.34 ±20.78 ±20.83 ±20.88
Means bearing different superscripts in a column differ significantly (P<0.05)
At the end of 10th fortnight the live body weight of White strain male was 1204.73±29.41g and female was 1134.91±30.74g; Lavender male was 1138.17±30.95g and female was 1058.62±30.99g and that of Pearl male and female was 1057.86±24.31g and 998.38±27.27g, respectively. At the end of the experiment (10th fortnight), the body weight of White male (Table 1) was highest (1204.73±29.41g), followed by Lavender male (1138.17±30.95g, Table 2) and White male (1134.91±30.74g, Table 1). However, lowest body weight was noted in Pearl female (998.38±27.27g, Table 3) at the end of 10th fortnight. The live body weight took an increasing trend from zero fortnights to 10th fortnight in males and females during all the seasons and strains of guinea fowls.
Comparison of live body weight between winter, summer and rainy seasons revealed that there was no significant difference in the day old body weight of different strains between seasons. The day old body weight of guinea keets of White strain in summer , winter and rainy seasons were 22.62±0.17, 21.95±0.18 and 22.82 ±0.18g (Table 4), in Lavender strain 22.05±0.16, 22.30±0.13 and 23.43±0.13g (Table 5) and in Pearl 22.87±0.12, 21.82±0.14 and 22.80±0.18g, (Table 6) respectively. However it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the day old body weight between different seasons in all the strains.
Till end of 2nd fortnight the effect of season (winter, summer and rainy) on live body weight was not evident in all three strains of guinea fowls
The live body weight of White during winter and rainy remained significantly higher than that of summer from 3rd fortnight to 10th fortnight. Besides, the live body of guinea fowls reared in winter and rainy seasons did not differ significantly during the entire period. The live body weight of White at the end of the experiment (10th fortnight) was 1239.50± 16.99g in winter, being highest, 1221.13±16.90g in rainy and 1048.83±17.85g in summer. In the strain Lavender the body weight of guinea fowls did not differ significantly between seasons till end of 2nd fortnight The Lavender guinea fowls had significantly higher live body weight from Pearl compared to summer and rainy seasons from 3rd to 10th fortnight. However there was no significant difference in the live body weight of Lavender guinea fowls between summer and rainy from 3rd to 10th fortnight. The live body weight of Lavender guinea fowls at the end of the experimental period (10th fortnight) in winter was 1197.05±17.31g (highest), 1072.68±16.02g in rainy and 1025.45±16.00g in summer season. The live body weight of Pearl guinea fowls remained significantly higher in winter than that in summer from 4th to 10th fortnight (till end of the experiment).The live body weight of Pearl guinea fowls was significantly higher during rainy than that of summer season from 6th to 10th fortnight. The live body weight of Pearl guinea fowls at the end of the experiment was highest (1113.27±18.4g) in winter followed by rainy (1042.58±17.92g) and summer (928.50±17.72g).
The day old body weight of White (22.46±0.13g), Lavender (22.59±0.17g) and Pearl (22.49±0.17g) were almost similar and did not differ significantly from each other. The effect of strain variation had no significant effect on live body weight of these strains up to 4th fortnight. The live body weight of the White strain (5th fortnight-647.83±19.87, 6th fortnight778.48±20.82g) was significantly higher than Pearl (5th fortnight-556.89±15.95, 6th fortnight-675.63±19.60g) during 5th and 6th fortnight but it was not significantly higher than Lavender (5th fortnight-624.12±22.32, 6th fortnight-752.54±25.67g) during the same fortnights. The live body weight during 7th and 8th fortnight of White (7th fortnight-894.41±21.18g, 8thfortnight-996.71±21.14g) and Lavender (7thfortnight-862.66±27.74g, 8th fortnight-953.62 ±26.71g) was significantly higher than the Pearl (7th fortnight-773.19±21.34g, 8th fortnight-864.60±20.78g) however, during the same fortnights no significant difference in the live body weight was observed between the White and Lavender .During 9th and 10th fortnights the live body weight of White (9th fortnight-1088.12±21.99, 10th fortnight 1169.82±22.63g) and Lavender (9th fortnight-1028.28±23.96g ,10th fortnight -1098.39±22.13g) was significantly higher than that of Pearl (9th fortnight-951.81±20.83, 10th fortnight-1028.12±20.88g), however during the same fortnights the body weight of White and Lavender did not differ significantly between themselves.
The comparison of male and female White, Lavender and Pearl guinea fowl body weights have been presented in Fig. 1 to Fig. 3. These graphs showed that the body weights of guinea fowls increased linearly from 1 to 10th fortnight, in both the sexes. The body weight of male and female were almost equal from 0 to 2nd fortnight, after which the body weight of male birds increased in comparison to the female birds. This trend was observed in all the three strains up to end of 10th fortnight.
The comparison of body weight of White, Lavender and Pearl guinea fowls in winter, summer and rainy seasons have been presented in Fig. 4 to Fig. 6. These graphs revealed that among all the seasons the body weight of all the strains of guinea fowls were higher in winter followed by rain and summer. Fig. 7 shows the comparison of body weights between White, Lavender and Pearl of guinea fowls. Perusal of the graph revealed that the body weight of all the strains were similar from 0-2nd fortnights after which the body weights of White, Lavender and Pearl differed from each other. At the end of 10th fortnight body weight of the White strain was highest among all followed by Lavender and the body weight of Pearl was observed to be the least.




















Body weight Gain:
The live body weight gain of White, Lavender and Pearl guinea fowls are presented in the Tables 8 to 14. The live body weight gain during each fortnight increased linearly from 1st to 5th fortnight and decreased thereafter with minimum gain during 10th fortnight (end of the experimental period). The live body weight gain during the 5th fortnight in White (male-171.86±8.69, female-136.68±8.79g), in Lavender (male-162.81±5.54, female-145.96±5.49g) and in Pearl (male-148.21±9.78, female-140.93±9.24g) was highest than that obtained during the other fortnights.
The significant effect of sex on live body weight gain was not observed up to end of 6th fortnight in the White (Table 8) and Lavender (Table 9) and up to 10th fortnight in the Pearl (Table 10). The male White guinea fowls gained significantly more weight from 7th to 10th fort night (Table 8) compared to the females of the same age (7th -123.40±3.99 versus 108.46±3.51g; 8th-104.93±5.96 vs. 99.66±5.91;9th-94.27±4.75 vs. 88.57±3.15; 10th-84.64±3.95 vs. 78.76±3.38g).The live body weight gain of Lavender male was significantly higher than the Lavender female during 7th (118.79±4.10 Versus 101.46±4.54g) and 8th (93.48±5.53 vs. 88.43±5.18g) fortnights only and in all other fortnights there was no significant difference in the body weight gain between male and female. The live body weight gain during 10th fortnight in Lavender male was 70.13±3.46 and in female it was 70.09±4.59g.
The live body weight gain during 10th fortnight in Pearl (Table 10) male was 73.79±5.34g and that in Pearl female was 78.83±5.90g with no significant difference between male and female in the live body weight gain from 1st to 10th fortnight.
The effect of season (winter, summer and rainy) on live body weight gain (Table No.11) of the White strain was evident during 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th fortnights but was not evident during 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th fortnights. Considering the probable slaughterable age as 5th fortnight, the live body weight gain of White strain during winter was 162.31±5.81g, in summer it was 142.90±5.03g and in rainy it was 157.60±5.86g. During 10th fortnight (End of the experiment) the body weight gain in White was 80.77±3.19 in winter, 78.73±3.26g in summer and 85.60±3.51g in rainy season.
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