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What is Cartosat-1?
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DescriptionCARTOSAT 1 is a stereoscopic Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. The satellite was built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space Research Organization (IISRO). Weighing around 1560 kg at launch, its applications will mainly be towards cartography in India. It was launched by the PSLV on 5 May 2005 from the newly built second launch pad at Sriharikota. Images from the satellite will be available from GeoEye for worldwide distribution.
CARTOSAT-1 carries two state-of-the-art panchromatic (PAN) cameras that take black and white stereoscopic pictures of the earth in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The swath covered by these high resolution PAN cameras is 30 km and their spatial resolution is 2.5 metres. The cameras are mounted on the satellite in such a way that near simultaneous imaging of the same area from two different angles is possible. This facilitates the generation of accurate three-dimensional maps. The cameras are steerable across the direction of the satellite's movement to facilitate the imaging of an area more frequently. The images taken by CARTOSAT-1 cameras are compressed, encrypted, formatted and transmitted to the ground stations. The images are reconstructed from the data received at the ground stations.
CARTOSAT-1 also carries a solid state recorder with a capacity of 120 Giga Bits to store the images taken by its cameras. The stored images can be transmitted when the satellite comes within the visibility zone of a ground station.
The main constituents of this facility are, 1) Data Archival and Quick-look Browser (DAQLB) Systems, 2) Data Processing System (DPS) and 3) Cartosat Data Centre (CDC). The CDC interfaces with the Cartosat user community in getting the user requirements and processes the archived or acquired data, making use of the sub-modules like Stereo Strip Triangulation (SST), the Ground Control Point Library (GCPL) and the Data Products and Services modules. The stereo strip triangulation subsystem takes the primary GCPs and the DLI as input and generates (1) Triangulated Control Points (TCP), (2) Coarse DEM and (3) Updated orientation parameters. The TCPs and coarse DEMs and the IMS work order are the inputs for data products generation subsystem along with DLTs for generation of Data Products operationally. Various types of Data products planned using Cartosat images are (1) Image Data Products, (2) Image Map Data Products and (3) DEM Data products. Various aspects of the Data products (and various resource generations like coarse DEM generation and Triangulated Control Point (TCP) generations are briefly given below.
1. Image Data Products:
The levels of Image Data Products defined on the basis of their indented end use with attended impact on accuracy and turn-around time, covering both stereo and monomode of operations is given in table 3.1. Different types of image data products meeting the targeted user needs are generated based on the spacecraft operational modes like stereo mode or mono mode and the orbit and attitude determination modes. Different types of products meeting the station specific user needs over the entire globe coverage is also planned for different earth stations and onboard SSR modes of data acquisition.
Table 3.1 Levels of Data Products
Level of Product Radiometric Correction Geometric Correction Intended End-Use.
Level '0A'RAW Not Applied Not Applied For internal use.
Level '0B'RAD Applied Not Applied For stereo processing at user end
/ VAS providers / DQE
Level '1'SYS Applied System Knowledge Quick turn-around-time digital products,
with acceptable quality for flat terrain or
mono mode data acquisition.
Level '2'GCP Applied System Knowledge + GCPs For better location accuracy for
cases when DEM is not available,
for data acquired in mono mode
or for flat terrain.
Level '3A'DEMA Applied System Knowledge + GCPs + DEM
(external input) Orthoimage products primarily for
IGS use, where GCPs and DEM are externally available.
Level '3B' DEMB Applied System knowledge + GCPs + DEM (internal) For Orthoimage product generation for data acquired in stereo mode.
Level '3C' DEMC Applied System Knowledge + GCPs + DEM
(external/internal, interactively edited
for density and surface discontinuities) For precision Orthoimage / Orthoimage map generation/map updating.
2. Image Map Data Products (IMDP):
IMDP containing co-registered ortho corrected Cartosat-PAN raster images with one or more layers of cartographic vector information (available apriori or derived from Cartosat image) including a layer containing ASCII text strings as labels of vector elements, with necessary additional ancillary information shall be generated and supplied to the users. The following types of products are planned.
a. 2-D Satellite Image Map Products in conventional map projection or with user-defined projection parameters.
b. 2.5-D Satellite Image Map Products, representing the terrain elevation for one or more fixed, standard perspective view angles possibly with artificially exaggerated scaling effects incorporated to show the terrain relief.
c. 3-D Satellite Image Map Products, optionally including the 3-D viewing software as a part of the product.
All the types of image map products are corrected Cartosat-PAN images, either on standalone basis or desirably fused with available multi-spectral images with comparable spatial resolution as the base raster image.
3. DEM Data Products:
The following types of DEM Data Products are planned to be generated.
Type I: As computed originally:
 As randomly distributed point heights as computed originally.
 As triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) retaining all the originally computed points, as they are.
 As progressively sampled rectangular grids, retaining all the originally computed points, as they are
Type II: As completed originally and incorporating break-lines:
 As a set of irregular point heights and break lines showing the surface discontinuities
 As a TIN model retaining all the originally computed points as they are; and in addition incorporating break lines, either as part of the TIN edges (referred as soft break lines) or as add-on specification (referred as hard break lines) indicating abrupt surface changes.
 As progressively sampled rectangular grids, retaining all the originally computed points, as they are plus the break lines manually identified.
Type III: As interpolated, mostly regular
 As a rectangular grid, generated by a suitable interpolation algorithm from the initial set of irregular points and break lines.
 As contours, connecting points of equal height at varying intervals.
 As a set of parallel vertical profiles, in any user desired direction.
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