Why was Catherine de’ Medici unable to prevent theCollapse of France into civil war after the death of her husband,Henri II, in 1559. Free essay! Download now
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Why was Catherine de’ Medici unable to prevent theCollapse of France into civil war after the death of her husband,Henri II, in 1559.
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DescriptionWhy was Catherine de’ Medici unable to prevent the
Collapse of France into civil war after the death of her husband,
Henri II, in 1559.
According to John Hunizinga, Burckhardt criticized the Renaissance in Italy defined the period in terms of two concepts. They are ‘Individualism’ and the other is ‘Modernity’. In Burckhardt’s view, of the Renaissance, is that “human minds were not yet awaken and that man was only conscious of himself only as a member of a race, people, party or cooperation” However in Renaissance this changed the common veil, or as Burckhardt puts it “melt into air” and man began to think for themselves and also to recognize themselves as spiritual individuals. And the second is modernity and as Burckhardt again wrote, “The Italian was the first born among the sons of Modern Europe, and that one of the first truly modern men of the fourteenth century was Francesco Petrarca”. Italy saw the renewal of different ideas and art which are two of the most fundamental aspects of the Renaissance which later extended to the whole of Europe. Huizinga argued that Burckhardt’s view of the Renaissance is inaccurate. Huizinga argument is that Burckhardt’s view of the Renaissance, objected to the dramatic contrast to be overstated ignoring the many innovations which were made in the “Middle Ages” and also the survival of traditional attitudes into the sixteenth century and beyond. He also dismissed the fact that Italy took great interest in artistry outside Italy and in art and music, especially that of the Netherlands. In Burckhardt’s view of the Renaissance, he acknowledged great artists and other talented heroes such as Alberti and Michelangelo. The narrative of these great men according to Huizinga “both explained and justified the modern world” . It is a figurative narrative in the sense that it illustrate cultural changes in terms of the “metaphor” of “awakening and rebirth” These metaphors are indeed very important to Burckhardt’s explanation of the Renaissance. A new and improved number of artists, scholars, and writers not only in Italy, but in other parts of the world in the middle of the fourteenth century and beyond used the imagery of the concept of renewal as a sign of living in a new world as an age of “regeneration, renovation, recall, rebirth, reawakening, or re-emergence into light after what they were the first to call the dark ages” .
Moreover, the metaphor was not new in their time either. Huizinga again points out that one can argue that the fact that Burckhardt took the “old formula of the rebirth of the arts and the revival of classical antiquity” and his addition of individualism, realism and modernity is in fact a good concept in itself. On the other hand, Renaissance according to one historian “Tracy Mishicin” often associated with the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe during the time of changes in the history of arts, science, literature, humanism and other features of nature. This has been thought of in two ways one is “a period of designation” and the other is a “principal of academic and curricular organization in the study of European cultures” . [R]renaissance as a term which has also been used outside Europe and has been used to describe other changes that may have associations with historical periods in other parts of the globe. The term is always exploited to indicate and immense change that constantly describes developments that questions social and cultural behaviors.
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