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Descriptive chemistry of the elemetnts: the periodic table Free essay! Download now

Home > A Level > Chemistry > Descriptive chemistry of the elemetnts: the periodic table

Descriptive chemistry of the elemetnts: the periodic table

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Downloads to date: N/A | Words: 1650 | Submitted: 31-Oct-2009
Spelling accuracy: N/A | Number of pages: | Filetype: Word .doc

Description

The key objective of this experiment is to examine and relate to the ionization energy and electron affinity of different elements when reacted together to form chemical and physical changes.

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The key objective of this experiment is to examine and relate to the ionization energy and electron affinity of different elements when reacted together to form chemical and physical changes. During the first day of the experiment, three different sets of elements were observed with the reactions of Br2 with KCl and KI, Cl2 with KBr and KI and I2 with KBr and KCl with the help of hexane. On the second day of the experiment, different elements from different groups of the periodic table, sodium, Na, potassium, K, magnesium, Mg, calcium, Ca, iron, Fe, copper, Cu, zinc, Zn, manganese, Mn, carbon, C, tin, Sn, lead, Pb, phosphorus, P, and finally sulfur, S, reacted with either water, H2O, hydrochloric acid, HCl, and oxygen, O2. Key results for day one is to understand if a chemical reaction actually occurred by observing the colors that the halogens give off in hexane and the physical properties of the elements in all three sets. The resulting notes for day two of the experiment include the chemical and physical properties of the products that the reactants create when reacted together. Throughout the experiment, it is observed that elements with higher ionization energy and electron affinity tend to create or seize bonds with other elements that have a weaker ionization energy and electron affinity. For example, during day one of the experiment, halogen Cl2 tended to bond with potassium when potassium originally bonded with a lower ionization energy and electron affinity compared to chlorine and other halogens that had lower ionization energy and electron affinity tried to bond with KCl but were unable to successfully create a reaction, resulting with the original halogen. The ionization energy and electron affinity decreases going from right to left and down the groups of the periodic table because when moved across the row of the periodic table, the atoms of the elements become more and more dense due to the large attraction received between proton and electrons, which then results in more bonding because of the attraction the atom consists towards an electron.
Materials and Methods
The physical properties of the first set of elements, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, boron, aluminum and calcium, were recorded in the lab notebook. There were a total of three sets. The other two sets were observed after day one’s experiment. Six small test tubes were obtained from the drawer and labeled. Each small test tube was labeled Cl2+KBr, Cl2+KI, Br2+KCl, Br2+KI, I2+KCl, and I2+KBr. The correct halide was poured into each test tube that was correctly labeled. Three other small test tubes were used, each labeled Cl2, Br2, and I2. Approximately one-fourth of each small test tube was filled up with the correctly labeled halogen. Each halogen was correctly poured cautiously with a dropper into its correctly labeled halide test tube. About 0.5mL of hexane was added to the small test tubes and then gently shaken. The hexane and “halogen water” was placed to rest in order to wait for the separation of hexane and the “halogen water.” After the results were recorded, the second and third sets of elements were observed. The second set, containing oxygen, carbon, bromine, germanium, phosphorus, tin, sulfur, silicon, lead, nitrogen, and iodine, and the third set of elements, containing cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and titanium, including the first set were recorded on page 58 in the lab notebook. The halogen and halide reactions were filled correctly in Table 1: Halogen and Halide Reactions (not filled in).
Table 1: Halogen and Halide Reactions (not filled in)
Halogen Halide Color of Halogen in Hexane Halogen Name Reaction (Yes/No)
Cl2 KBr
Cl2 KI
Br2 KCl
Br2 KI
I2 KCl
I2 KBr

During the second day of laboratory, two 250mL beakers were obtained from the lab drawers, including a few litmus paper, red and blue, from the front cart. One beaker was labeled “sodium+ water” and the other “potassium+ water.” A round filter paper was obtained, folded in half, and ripped through the middle, creating two halves of the circle. One half was labeled “sodium” and the other “potassium.” The filter papers were taken to the professor in order to place the metals on the paper. Some of the liquid surrounding the metal was absorbed by the filter paper. The sodium and potassium metals were then carefully taken to the laboratory bench for the continuation of the experiment.
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