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pret a manger swot and pestle analysis
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Descriptiontypes of ordinary shares.
Ordinary (equity) shares
Ordinary shares are issued to the owners of a company. They have a nominal or 'face' value, typically of $1 or 50 cents. The market value of a quoted company's shares bears no relationship to their nominal value, except that when ordinary shares are issued for cash, the issue price must be equal to or be more than the nominal value of the shares.
Deferred ordinary shares
are a form of ordinary shares, which are entitled to a dividend only after a certain date or if profits rise above a certain amount. Voting rights might also differ from those attached to other ordinary shares.
Ordinary shareholders put funds into their company:
a) by paying for a new issue of shares
b) through retained profits.
Simply retaining profits, instead of paying them out in the form of dividends, offers an important, simple low-cost source of finance, although this method may not provide enough funds, for example, if the firm is seeking to grow.
A new issue of shares might be made in a variety of different circumstances:
a) The company might want to raise more cash. If it issues ordinary shares for cash, should the shares be issued pro rata to existing shareholders, so that control or ownership of the company is not affected? If, for example, a company with 200,000 ordinary shares in issue decides to issue 50,000 new shares to raise cash, should it offer the new shares to existing shareholders, or should it sell them to new shareholders instead?
i) If a company sells the new shares to existing shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholding in the company, we have a rights issue. In the example above, the 50,000 shares would be issued as a one-in-four rights issue, by offering shareholders one new share for every four shares they currently hold.
ii) If the number of new shares being issued is small compared to the number of shares already in issue, it might be decided instead to sell them to new shareholders, since ownership of the company would only be minimally affected.
b) The company might want to issue shares partly to raise cash, but more importantly to float' its shares on a stick exchange.
c) The company might issue new shares to the shareholders of another company, in order to take it over.
New shares issues
A company seeking to obtain additional equity funds may be:
a) an unquoted company wishing to obtain a Stock Exchange quotation
b) an unquoted company wishing to issue new shares, but without obtaining a Stock Exchange quotation
c) a company which is already listed on the Stock Exchange wishing to issue additional new shares.
The methods by which an unquoted company can obtain a quotation on the stock market are:
a) an offer for sale
b) a prospectus issue
c) a placing
d) an ...
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