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The effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria. Free essay! Download now

Home > A Level > Biology > The effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria.

The effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria.

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Downloads to date: N/A | Words: 2153 | Submitted: 17-Sep-2012
Spelling accuracy: 95.3% | Number of pages: 9 | Filetype: Word .doc


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The effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria. essay previewThe effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria. essay previewThe effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria. essay preview

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antibiotics

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TITLE:
The effectiveness of different antibiotics on bacteria.
OBJECTIVES:
The objective of this experiment is to investigate the effect of different antibiotics on bacteria.
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
When a bacterial infection is diagnosed, it is important to use the most effective antibiotic in order to kill or destroy the bacteria. However, there are more than one antibiotics that exist today and therefore, we have to carry out an experiment to determine which antibiotic can bring the best results. This experiment is carried out using several type of bacteria and antibiotics such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and streptomycin.
HYPOTHESIS:
Tetracycline is the most effective antibiotic compared to ampicillin and carbenicillin against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aures, and Bacillus.
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
Tetracycline is the most non effective antibiotic compared to ampicillin and streptomycin against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aures, and Bacillus
VARIABLES:
Manipulated variables: Type of antibiotic, type of bacteria used.
Responding variables: The diameter of inhibition zone.
Fixed variables : The concentrations of antibiotic, volume of bacteria and duration of
incubation.
INTRODUCTION:
In this experiment, as I mention before, we use three types of antibiotics. The first one is carbenicillin, followed by ampicilin, and lastly tetracycline. Below this are the description about all the three antibiotics.
Streptomycin.
This antibiotic is produced by microbes Streptomyces griseus. This antibiotic is found by Albert Shcatz, Elizabeth Bugie and Selman Waksman in 1943, and is reported as antimicrobial activities in 1944. This was the first antimicrobial agent that developed after penicillin. The activity spectrum of the antibiotics are given below:
This antibiotic is inhibitory for a gamut of microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative.
It is widely is used in the treatment of infective diseases, especially in infections by gram-negative bacteria, like septic sore throat.
It is active against species that are resistant to other antibiotics, e.g. penicillin-resistant Staphylococci and bacteria of the genera Proteus.
It is the treatment of choice in infections of the heart, i.e. bacterial endocarditis.
It is used extensively as the primary medicine in the treatment of Tuberculosis, in combination with other drugs like isoniazid, ethambutol and aminosalicylic acid.

Figure 1: The structure of streptomycin. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptomycin)
Streptomycin invade the bacteria by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor as it has the ability to bind to the 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl-tRNA to the 30S subunit. This results in codon misreading, therefore inhibit the protein synthesis and leading to death of the microbial cells. This antibiotics will not disrupts the human cells as human cells have structurally different ribosome than the bacteria.
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