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How can the use of stem cell therapy help Diabetes Mellitus? Free essay! Download now

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How can the use of stem cell therapy help Diabetes Mellitus?

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How can the use of stem cell therapy help Diabetes Mellitus?


Prevalence in the above table refers to the number of people currently diagnosed with diabetes. The statistics show that a very large number of people currently have diabetes. The sum adds to a total of 2.5 million people in the UK. However, these figures are for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As type 1 is less common, the statistics for this would be a much lower figure. This data table comes from a diabetes organisation website which I believe to be reliable. As the website is a ‘.org’ it proves that it must be an authorised organisation. It comes from a framework which was introduced in 2004, providing financial incentives to general practices included in the data, which is government funded. “Participation by practices in the [framework] is voluntary but most practices choose to participate.” [8].This quote from the organisation website gives a very strong reassurance that the data is from the majority of practices which increases accuracy and validity.

What is diabetes in terms of blood sugar?
Diabetes mellitus develops due to an autoimmune disease which results in destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas [1]. It is unknown why the autoimmune disease occurs, but in the case of diabetes leads to the body’s immune system seeing its own tissues as foreign which leads to the production of antibodies which destroy insulin producing cells. This means that no insulin is produced, which is needed to regulate the sugar levels [3]. The opposite illustration shows how the glucose levels in the blood are regulated in accordance to the chemical messengers’ glucagon and insulin. As sufferers of type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin from the beta cells (islet cells), there is no chemical ‘message’ for cells, such as muscle or fat cells etc, to receive. In effect, no sugar is taken up from the blood into the cells `which would normally have the net effect of lowering blood concentrations back to normal 70mg/dl-110mg/dl (milligrams of glucose in 100 millilitres of blood) [4].

How is diabetes caused?
Diabetes is a polygenic condition which depends on the inheritance of abnormal genes. Because it is developed early in life, it does not depend on dietary factors as much as type 2 diabetes does. In 90% of type 1 sufferers there is no family history to the disease which suggests events such as infection may trigger the disease [2]. Supporting this, on reading a publication about diabetes, I discovered that many studies conclude that a ‘diabetes gene’ cannot be isolated. “Researchers often study identical twins with diabetes in the family because they have exactly the same genes. If it were genes alone that caused diabetes, then either both twins would inherit the condition, or neither would inherit the genes and get diabetes. But that does not happen. Often, one twin gets diabetes and the other does not.” [5]. This eliminates the possibility that diabetes only occurs through gene meaning other factors must contribute [5]. All books published have to be cross referenced and pier read. Due to this fact, the information provided and used will of true nature and therefore I am comfortable that the data is valid and reliable.
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are tiredness, thirst, the need to urinate a lot and weight loss. Excess glucose in the blood give rise to long term effects such as blood vessel damage, leading to heart disease and stroke. High blood sugar levels can also cause coma or death [2].

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